Following is my review of **Boosting : Foundations and Algorithms (by Robert E. Schapire and Yoav Freund)** to appear in the SIGACT book review column soon.

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**Book** : Boosting : Foundations and Algorithms (by Robert E. Schapire and Yoav Freund)

**Reviewer** : Shiva Kintali

**Introduction**

You have *k* friends, each one earning a small amount of money (say 100 dollars) every month by buying and selling stocks. One fine evening, at a dinner conversation, they told you their individual “strategies” (after all, they are your friends). Is it possible to “combine” these individual strategies and make million dollars in an year, assuming your initial capital is same as your average friend ?

You are managing a group of *k* “diverse” software engineers each one with only an “above-average” intelligence. Is it possible to build a world-class product using their skills ?

The above scenarios give rise to fundamental theoretical questions in machine learning and form the basis of **Boosting**. As you may know, the goal of machine learning is to build systems that can adapt to their environments and learn from their experience. In the last five decades, machine learning has impacted almost every aspect of our life, for example, computer vision, speech processing, web-search, information retrieval, biology and so on. In fact, it is very hard to name an area that cannot benefit from the theoretical and practical insights of machine learning.

The answer to the above mentioned questions is **Boosting**, an elegant method for driving down the error of the combined classifier by combining a number of weak classifiers. In the last two decades, several variants of Boosting are discovered. All these algorithms come with a set of theoretical guarantees and made a deep practical impact on the advances of machine learning, often providing new explanations for existing prediction algorithms.

**Boosting : Foundations and Algorithms**, written by the inventors of Boosting, deals with variants of **AdaBoost**, an adaptive boosting method. Here is a quick explanation of the basic version of AdaBoost.

AdaBoost makes iterative calls to the base learner. It maintains a distribution over training examples to choose the training sets provided to the base learner on each round. Each training example is assigned a weight, a measure of importance of correctly classifying an example on the current round. Initially, all weights are set equally. On each round, the weights of incorrectly classified examples are increased so that, “hard” examples get successively higher weight. This forces the base learner to focus its attention on the hard example and drive down the generalization errors.

AdaBoost is fast and easy to implement and the only parameter to tune is the number of rounds. The actual performance of boosting is dependent on the data.

**Summary**

Chapter 1 provides a quick introduction and overview of Boosting algorithms with practical examples. The rest of the book is divided into four major parts. Each part is divided into 3 to 4 chapters.

**Part I** studies the properties and effectiveness of AdaBoost and theoretical aspects of minimizing its training and generalization errors. It is proved that AdaBoost drives the training error down very fast (as a function of the error rates of the weak classifiers) and the generalization error arbitrarily close to zero. Basic theoretical bounds on the generalization error show that AdaBoost overfits, however empirical studies show that AdaBoost does not overfit. To explain this paradox, a margin-based analysis is presented to explain the absence of overfitting.

**Part II** explains several properties of AdaBoost using game-theoretic interpretations. It is shown that the principles of Boosting are very intimately related to the classic min-max theorem of von Neumann. A two-player (the boosting algorithm and the weak learning algorithm) game is considered and it is shown that AdaBoost is a special case of a more general algorithm for playing a repeated game. By reversing the roles of the players, a solution is obtained for the online prediction model thus establishing a connection between Boosting and online learning. Loss minimization is studied and AdaBoost is interpreted as an abstract geometric framework for optimizing a particular objective function. More interestingly, AdaBoost is viewed as a special case of more general methods for optimization of an objective function such as coordinate descent and functional gradient descent.

**Part III** explains several methods of extending AdaBoost to handle classifiers with more than two output classes. AdaBoost.M1, AdaBoost.MH and AdaBoost.MO are presented along with their theoretical analysis and practical applications. RankBoost, an extension of AdaBoost to study ranking problems is studied. Such an algorithm is very useful, for example, to rank webpages based on their relevance to a given query.

**Part IV **is dedicated to advanced theoretical topics. Under certain assumptions, it is proved that AdaBoost can handle noisy-data and converge to the best possible classifier. An optimal boost-by-majority algorithm is presented. This algorithm is then modified to be adaptive leading to an algorithm called BrownBoost.

Many examples are given throughout the book to illustrate the empirical performance of the algorithms presented. Every chapter ends with *Summary* and *Bibliography* mentioning the related publications. There are well-designed exercises at the end of every chapter. Appendix briefly outlines some required mathematical background.

**Opinion**

**Boosting** book is definitely a very good reference text for researchers in the area of machine learning. If you are new to machine learning, I encourage you to read an introductory machine learning book (for example, **Machine Learning by Tom M. Mitchell**) to better understand and appreciate the concepts. In terms of being used in a course, a graduate-level machine learning course can be designed from the topics covered in this book. The exercises in the book can be readily used for such a course.

Overall this book is a stimulating learning experience. It has provided me new perspectives on theory and practice of several variants of Boosting algorithms. Most of the algorithms in this book are new to me and I had no difficulties following the algorithms and the corresponding theorems. The exercises at the end of every chapter made these topics much more fun to learn.

The authors did a very good job compiling different variants of Boosting algorithms and achieved a nice balance between theoretical analysis and practical examples. I highly recommend this book for anyone interested in machine learning.

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